Independence Is Not a Dirty Word

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Happy new year! This is the first post for year 2017.
I hope you guys weren’t too hangovered like I did. Seriously.

So, as promised in the last case-study, today we are going to see a very interesting case-study that will make you fire up those 4th of July fireworks, or do some BBQing in the park. Hmmm! Kosher Bacon! (NOTE: Bacons are not Kosher).

Everyone seem to love jQuery. This awesome “Javascript library” seems to be everywhere I look – thousands of companies use it in their website client’s side, and it is super convenient, especially when it comes to AJAX requests – importing jQuery makes our lives a whole lot easier.
jQuery is not alone. Google and Microsoft (and sometime Mozilla and Apple as well) release new JS libraries all the time, and advice developers to use them and to import them to their products. For example, if you want to play a QuickTime video, you should import Apple’s QuickTime JS library, and if you want that neat jQuery DatePicker, you should import that library from Google, jQuery or any other mirror.

Count the times I used the word ‘import’ in the last paragraph. Done? 4 times.
Whenever we want to use a certain ‘public’ JS code, which is belong to a certain company or service, we import it directly from them.
To be more clear, we simply put a <script> tag on our website, with a ‘src’ property pointing to the JS file address:

<script src=”http/s://></script>

Did you get it? We are loading a script from another website – a 3rd party web site – to our website’s context. We are violating the number one rule of web security – we trust other website.

Now, this might sound a little stupid – why shouldn’t I be able to import a script from a trustworthy company like jQuery, Microsoft or Google? And you are basically right.

But,  When you are importing a script from a trustworthy company, in 90% of the time you will be importing it from the company’s CDN.
CDNs stands for Content Delivery Network, and it is a (quoted:) “is a system of distributed servers (network) that deliver webpages and other Web content to a user based on the geographic locations of the user, the origin of the webpage and a content delivery server.”

Its an hosting service which provides service to the company’s clients based on their location and a few other factors. The JS file you are importing is not being kept on the company’s official server (again- most of the times).

In this case-study we’ll see how a very popular web software company, which of course we cannot reveal yet, fell for this.

This company developed a very popular JS library and hosted it on a 3rd party CDN they purchased. That CDN was kind of ‘smart’ and redirected users to the closest server according to the user’s location:

When a request was arrived to the main server, the server determined the location of the IP and the routed the request to the nearest server according the determined location.

Dozens of websites have planted a <script src> tag in their source code to that company’s main server CDN, and it has provided their users with the necessary JS libraries everytime.

But after doing some research on the Apache server that was being on Server C (Copy C in the image), we have concluded that this server was vulnerable to an Arbitrary File Upload attack, which allowed us to upload a file to the CDN. Not that serious, at first glance.
But! When we examined the way the file was being upload, unauthorizedly of course, we saw that it is possible to use a Directory Traversal on the file path. We simply changed the filename to ../../../<company’s domain>/<product name>/<version>/<jsfilename>.js And we were able to replace the company’s legitimate JS file with a malicious one.

Basically, we had an XSS on dozens of websites and companies, without even researching them. The funny thing was that this attack affected only users who got directed to the vulnerable server (Server C).

What are we learning from this (TL;DR-FU;-)
Never trust 3rd party websites and services to do your job! I told you that millions of times already! Be independent. Be a big boy that can stay alone in the house. Simply download the JS file manually and keep it on your server!

But what happens when the JS library I am using gets updated?
Clearly, there is no easy way to keep track of it.
I advised a client of mine to simply write a cronjob or a python script that will check the latest version of the JS library available on the company’s server and then compare it to the local one. If the versions does not equal – the script sends an email to the tech team.
Or you can simply check it manually every once in a while. Big JS libraries don’t get updated that often.

So, after the horror movie you just watched, The next thing you are going to do, besides coffee, is to download your 3rd party libraries to your server.


Arbitrary File Upload From A Different Angle

Today we will discuss about arbitrary file uploads, a less common vulnerability, but one of the most powerful out there.

Less common? Why?

Because any platform with sane developers will validate the content type and the file extension of any file they interact with.
But today I want to introduce you with a new validation attitude that I now advise everyone to use – validate the content itself.
If you are expecting an image to be uploaded – expect the content to be suited as a content of an image. If you are expecting an html file – sanitize it and make sure no script tags exist. There are plenty of libraries and tools to do that.

With that being said, a lot of companies and developers I have came across with said to me: “Why should we make all that effort when we can just host the uploaded files on a CDN (Content Delivery Network)?”.
Well, today’s story is just about that. was my first interaction with this new attack vector. They allow images to be uploaded as profile and cover pictures, DOC and DOCX files to be uploaded as resumes and far more.

But they also have a nice feature where users can write articles and publish them for others to read.
This form supports images uploads, and those images, as you can imagine, are being uploaded to a CDN ( is of course the official CDN of Freelancer INC.

The developers here probably assumed that since images are being uploaded to a CDN, no sanitation and content validation should be done – The form does not support HTML – so XSS cannot be done, and the CDN does not allows php files (or any other like it) to be accessed – just download them.

Well, this attitude allowed me to be able to upload a .exe file to the official CDN of Freelancer INC.

Can you imagine a scenario where a hacker will host malicious viruses on the CDN of an official company? I hope you do.
Far more, there is no size limit – any size of a file can be hosted on the CDN (although it may take time to upload it and the connection may be refused eventually).

So remember – using CDNs is not always the best option. Yes, XSSes will not affect users (because of a different domains) and yes, shells and RCEs will not endanger your server directly. But mis-validating the type of files that your CDN hosts might cause your company to a great lost.
Keep that in mind.