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“Fences were made to be jumped over” – John Doe
As you might have already guessed (or not), today’s case-study is about an open redirects.
I have already shared with you my thoughts about open redirects and their consequences on the website’s general security.
Now it is the time to demonstrate how open redirects can be achieved by manipulating the AOR (Anti Open Redirects) mechanism.
A great example for a great AOR is again Facebook’s linkshim system. It is basically attach an access token to every URL that is being posted on Facebook.
That access token is personal, so only the user who now viewing the link can be the one to click on it and be redirected to its destination; other don’t. In addition, the linkshim mechanism checks the destination for the user and prevents the user from being redirected to a malicious website. Yes, pretty cool.
Well, until now the sun is shining and we all are having fun at the beach. Hang me that beer, would you?
But what happens when the AOR mechanism, the same one that we trust so much, is being manipulated to act differently?
That’s exactly what we are going to witness today.
Sadly, most websites that use an AOR manage the links that are being posted to them only if those links are of 3rd party websites. Which means, that if I am on the website x.com and I am posting a link to website y.com, the link will appear this way on x.com: x.com/out?url=y.com&access_token=1asd2ad6fdC
But if I’ll post a link to the same domain (post x.com/blabla on x.com), the link will appear as is: x.com/blabla
The reason this is happening is because websites trust themselves to redirect user within them. They think this is ‘safe’ and ‘pointless’ to attach an access token to a link that is redirecting the user to the same domain. And you can agree with them, like many. I heard the argument ‘if a certain page is vulnerable to an open redirect there is no reason to check redirection to it‘ countless times. But now I’m about to change that once and for all.
A very popular designs website, which I can’t reveal his name because there are a few more vulnerability checks to perform on it had this exact vulnerability.
The site allowed “inner links” to be redirected with any access token or validation, but required the referrer to be the same domain. Pretty smart. But the AOR mechanism allowed any inner link to be redirected, as long as its domain was that site’s main domain.
Using a domain enumeration software I was able to detect a sub domain of the website that contained a mail service for the company’s employees, and that mail service had an open redirect vulnerability on its logout page – even the user was not logged in, when the log out page was being accessed with a ‘redirect after’ GET parameter, the user was redirected to any other page, even of a 3rd party web.
Now that I have an open redirect on a sub domain page, how can I make it rain from the main domain?
Well, the answer was quite easy – I’ll simply use the logic flaw of the AOR mechanism to redirect the user to the sub domain and from there to the 3rd party site.
But there was still a problem – as I said before, the AOR mechanism allowed the link to be redirected to a subdomain, but only if the referrer was the same website. So what have I done?
I have simply redirected the user to the same page, and then he got redirected again.
If the 2 vulnerable pages are:
Vulnerable mail service: http://mail.x.com/out?url=y.com
‘Vulnerable’ page within the domain: http://x.com/redirect?to=mail.x.com/out?url=y.com
And the second page requires the referrer header to be from x.com, I have simply issued the following URL:
That’s it. A beautiful example of a simple, easy-to-use logic flaw withing an AOR mechanism.